As I try to cope with my recovery from surgery, I find I have to take naps. I didn’t mean to fall out during today’s sermon–which was a fine sermon–but my body just needed 20 winks. It only got 2 before I was jolted awake.
So I got 18 more after Sunday lunch, and found my dreams troubled once again by Messrs. AC and IM. It seems they’d met for lunch to continue their conversation.
IM: So. Have you given our last conversation and further thought?
AC: I most certainly have. I can’t say I’ve completely sorted things out. I think you scored points on the historical argument. I think your other arguments are a bit strained.
On the other hand, the safety argument does seem too cute by half. I have to say, if God meant for us to know his will, he would surely have made it plain. I’m not comfortable with taking a “maybe” and turning into a sin or a command–either way.
And although I agree that we can’t establish doctrine based on history, it would seem to be a useful check on ourselves. If what we conclude violates early church history, well, those guys knew First Century Greek and culture far better than we do! I’m inclined to question any view that contradicts the early church’s understanding.
But, like you, I realize that it’s horribly dangerous to let the Second and Third Century churches tells us what the Bible says. They made lots of mistakes. I reviewed some of my Patristic material since our last meeting, and there’s no doubt–these guys were NOT inspired!
IM: Well, we seem to be making progress, at least! If you don’t mind, I’d like to spend a little time considering the key worship passages in the New Testament. After all, we really can’t reach any conclusions until we understand the apostolic doctrine of worship.
AC: Agreed. I assume you want to start in John 4.
IM: You read my mind. In the story of Jesus and the Samaritan woman, he speaks of the promise of “living water,” and then she changes the subject. She asks Jesus whether the Samaritans are right to worship on Mt. Gerizim when the Jews worship on Mt. Zion in Jerusalem.
(John 4:21-24) Jesus declared, “Believe me, woman, a time is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. 22 You Samaritans worship what you do not know; we worship what we do know, for salvation is from the Jews. 23 Yet a time is coming and has now come when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for they are the kind of worshipers the Father seeks. 24 God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in spirit and in truth.”
It seems we can’t get very far discussing Christian worship until we understand what it means to worship “in spirit and in truth.”
AC: Well, that’s not much of a riddle. All my life I’ve been taught that it means to worship according to God’s laws (“truth”) and with the right attitude (“spirit”).
The Samaritans had a good attitude but followed the wrong rules. The Jews worshiped in the right place, but with the wrong attitude.
IM: You’d agree that v. 23 indicates a contrast–that Christian worship would be different from Mosaic worship?
IM: And that v. 24 says the difference will be that Christian worship will be in spirit and in truth, in contrast to worship under the Law of Moses?
IM: And that the difference would be that worship under the Law was a matter of getting the forms right and that Jesus would require his followers to also have their hearts right?
IM: Have you even read the Old Testament? I mean, other than Bible stories as a child, do you bother reading the prophets?
AC: That’s more than a little offensive. We’re a New Testament church, but we study both testaments!
IM: I doubt it. I mean, the prophets repeatedly criticize the Jews for worshipping with the right form and the wrong heart. God has never accepted worship that was not from the heart.
(Deu 4:29) But if from there you seek the LORD your God, you will find him if you look for him with all your heart and with all your soul.
(Deut. 6:5) Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.
(Deut. 10:16) Circumcise your hearts, therefore, and do not be stiff-necked any longer.
(Isa. 1:11-17) “The multitude of your sacrifices– what are they to me?” says the LORD. “I have more than enough of burnt offerings, of rams and the fat of fattened animals; I have no pleasure in the blood of bulls and lambs and goats. 12 When you come to appear before me, who has asked this of you, this trampling of my courts? 13 Stop bringing meaningless offerings! Your incense is detestable to me. New Moons, Sabbaths and convocations– I cannot bear your evil assemblies. 14 Your New Moon festivals and your appointed feasts my soul hates. They have become a burden to me; I am weary of bearing them. 15 When you spread out your hands in prayer, I will hide my eyes from you; even if you offer many prayers, I will not listen. Your hands are full of blood; 16 wash and make yourselves clean. Take your evil deeds out of my sight! Stop doing wrong, 17 learn to do right! Seek justice, encourage the oppressed. Defend the cause of the fatherless, plead the case of the widow.
(Amos 5:21-24) “I hate, I despise your religious feasts; I cannot stand your assemblies. 22 Even though you bring me burnt offerings and grain offerings, I will not accept them. Though you bring choice fellowship offerings, I will have no regard for them. 23 Away with the noise of your songs! I will not listen to the music of your harps. 24 But let justice roll on like a river, righteousness like a never-failing stream!
God has always demanded heart worship. There is no way you were taught correctly on this.
AC: [a bit red faced] OK. You’ve made your point. I actually knew those passages. We studied them a few years ago in a summer series. I’d just never put the two together!
If you’re so smart, then, what did Jesus mean?
[AC thought about leaving, but it was IM’s turn to pay. Besides, AC thought sure he’d score some points on such a familiar passage!]
IM: As always, context is everything. Let’s start with Spirit.
What is “living water”? I’ll make this easy. Flip over to John 7:37–
(John 7:37-39) On the last and greatest day of the Feast, Jesus stood and said in a loud voice, “If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink. 38 Whoever believes in me, as the Scripture has said, streams of living water will flow from within him.” 39 By this he meant the Spirit, whom those who believed in him were later to receive. Up to that time the Spirit had not been given, since Jesus had not yet been glorified.
It’s the indwelling Spirit! I mean, it could hardly be more clear.
Now, back in John 4, Jesus said, “God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in spirit and in truth.” Plainly, the second “spirit” has to have the same meaning as the first “spirit,” right?
“God is spirit” means God is made of a substance–spirit–different from what we’re made of–matter. Surely, Jesus’ saying that we must worship in the Holy Spirit, means we must somehow be connected to the world of God, the world of spirit, because flesh and blood isn’t good enough.
AC: Then why doesn’t the Bible say this elsewhere?
IM: But it does.
(Phil. 3:3) For it is we who are the circumcision, we who worship by the Spirit of God, who glory in Christ Jesus, and who put no confidence in the flesh–
Here it is. Paul says that the true people of God–the church–are shown to be such because only they worship by the Spirit of God and put no confidence in the flesh.
(Rom. 8:15) For you did not receive a spirit that makes you a slave again to fear, but you received the Spirit of sonship. And by him we cry, “Abba, Father.”
You see, the Spirit gives us a relationship with God that’s a personal relationship, that lets us see him truly as our Father.
Now, one of the major themes of the Gospel of John is the coming of the Spirit. It’s mentioned in chapter 1 and repeatedly throughout the Gospel. It’s not at all surprising that Jesus speaks of the Spirit as being essential to our worship.
AC: You’re not about to tell me to speak in tongues, are you? Because I went to one of those services, and I really just don’t …
IM: No. I’m not a tongue speaker myself. I think Jesus wasn’t urging his followers to use any particular gift. Rather, he was speaking of the relationship between God and his worshipper formed by the indwelling Spirit.
There’s a little bit of God in all his children. The Spirit prompts us to be more Christ-like, to bear fruit, to have spiritual gifts, and grow more and more holy. The Spirit “sanctifies” us so that we’re God’s children and able to enter his presence in a way that others cannot.
AC: This is all too metaphysical for me. I mean, I’m barely getting used to this idea of a personal indwelling, and now you’re talking poetry. It just doesn’t fit my understanding.
IM: Well, then, let’s talk about “truth.” John uses “truth” several times in his Gospel and his epistles, and it means “the truth about Jesus” or “the gospel.” Paul and other writers do the same.
I’ll not bore you with all the proof texts. We’ve covered back when we had this conversation.
AC: I remember the lesson. You’ve taught it more than once, and I’m glad not to have to hear it again!
IM: You’re right, but it’s an important lesson. And it helps us understand the passage. Jesus’ words become something like–
God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in [the Holy] [S]pirit and in [the] truth [about Jesus, the gospel]
Now, I’ll admit, this is not altogether transparent, but we ought to be able to sort it out.
The first clue is the introductory phrase “God is spirit.” Jesus knew the Samaritan woman already knew that. The Samaritans did not worship a flesh and blood God!
His point has to be that to worship a spirit one must first take on the nature of spirit, which the Living Water lets us do.
Immediately preceding the story of the Samaritan woman is Jesus’ encounter with Nicodemus. Jesus declares to him,
(John 3:6) Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit.
The idea is that those who’ve been born again are reborn as spiritual beings. See also,
(2 Pet. 1:4) Through these he has given us his very great and precious promises, so that through them you may participate in the divine nature and escape the corruption in the world caused by evil desires.
So, “Spirit” makes us worthy to worship. It puts in God’s realm, in a sense. After all, the clear implication of Jesus’ words is that we cannot properly worship a spirit except as spirit. We must have some of the same “stuff” that makes God spirit–and that’s the Holy Spirit.
AC: This is still a bit too metaphysical for my taste. Maybe if you could get back to the “truth” part it would make better sense.
IM: “Truth” is such a big topic, we’ll never get finished during our lunch break! But very quickly–
(John 15:26-27) “When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me. 27 And you also must testify, for you have been with me from the beginning.
Jesus again ties “truth” and “Spirit.” The Spirit testifies about Jesus, which makes the Spirit the Spirit of truth.
Just so, our worship must testify about Jesus. We have to worship to celebrate Jesus’ work in us and to declare his name. That’s worshiping in truth.
(2 Thes. 2:13) But we ought always to thank God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because from the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through belief in the truth.
Again, the two are tied together. The are two aspects of our salvation. And worship is for the saved. Our salvation makes us worshipers.
In other words, John 4:23 is not a passage that gives a magic formula for correct worship. Rather, it gives the formula for correct worshippers!
And it tells us the content of our worship. You can teach a 13-part lesson on 5 acts of worship and not once mention Jesus! Or grace! Or the Spirit! But Jesus is telling us that it’s all about Jesus–the truth–and the Spirit, who testifies about Jesus.
True worship is Jesus-centered and Spirit-prompted.
AC: Ok. I’m getting closer to following you, but this is still hard on my poor brain.
I mean, what does “Spirit prompted” even mean? Does God put words in your mouth? Are we supposed to get new commands each Sunday from a prophet? These ideas are just so foreign …
IM: Consider this passage, and then I’ll pick up the check, as I promised.
(Phil. 2:12-13) Therefore, my dear friends, as you have always obeyed–not only in my presence, but now much more in my absence–continue to work out your salvation with fear and trembling, 13 for it is God who works in you to will and to act according to his good purpose.
V. 12 plainly tells us to work out our own salvation. There’s no loss of free will. We can either do it or not. It’s our choice.
But v. 13 tells us that, if we’ll try, God will work within us to “will” and to “act” the way he wants us to.
The “will” means God himself influences our hearts to want to obey God. The “act” means that our influenced heart will change our behavior.
But this change is in the direction we wanted to go. We chose. God (through his Spirit) helped.
Just so, if we choose to be worshipers, God, through his Spirit, will help mold our hearts and actions to worship all the better.
Now, this says nothing about what forms of worship God wants. Rather, it tells us something far more important–what worship is about and how we mysteriously work in step with the Spirit and God himself to worship Jesus. And it tells who a worshiper is.
And, finally, it tells us what’s of first importance in true worship. It’s not specific acts of worship. It’s relationship with Jesus. It’s openness to God and his Spirit prompting us to will and act as God wishes. It’s proclaiming Jesus. It’s truly feeling and understanding what it means to be God’s child. It’s being in an “Abba” relationship with God.
[IM picks up the check. AC and IM then vigorously debate where to eat next. I wake up. My head hurts not quite so much this time. Maybe I’m getting better.]