Luke records that the disciples broke bread together daily.
(Acts 2:46-47) Every day they continued to meet together in the temple courts. They broke bread in their homes and ate together with glad and sincere hearts, 47 praising God and enjoying the favor of all the people. And the Lord added to their number daily those who were being saved.
E. M. Blaiklock writes in the Tyndale commentary on Acts,
Thirdly, fellowship is the keynote. The ‘love-feast’ (breaking of bread, 42) includes the Lord’s Supper, but was later separated from it. Eating together, especially in the East, has always been a prime sign of fellowship. There is perhaps room for the revival of ‘the common meal’.
There’s no basis to conclude that “break bread” means “take the Lord’s Supper.” Rather, the phrase is routinely used in Luke and Acts of eating a meal, although a meal with Eucharistic overtones.
(Luke 9:16) Taking the five loaves and the two fish and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke them. Then he gave them to the disciples to set before the people.
(Luke 24:30-31) When he was at the table with them, he took bread, gave thanks, broke it and began to give it to them. 31 Then their eyes were opened and they recognized him, and he disappeared from their sight.
(Acts 20:7) On the first day of the week we came together to break bread. Paul spoke to the people and, because he intended to leave the next day, kept on talking until midnight.
(Acts 20:10-11) Paul went down, threw himself on the young man and put his arms around him. “Don’t be alarmed,” he said. “He’s alive!” 11 Then he went upstairs again and broke bread and ate. After talking until daylight, he left.
(Acts 27:34-35) Now I urge you to take some food. You need it to survive. Not one of you will lose a single hair from his head.” 35 After he said this, he took some bread and gave thanks to God in front of them all. Then he broke it and began to eat.
There’s surely a lesson or two in these passages, but I fail to see a command to assemble weekly to take the Eucharist. Rather, the pattern Luke is showing is that any meal taken in the name of Jesus is, in some sense, sacramental.
Although the Jerusalem church broke bread daily, the church in Troas evidently had adopted a weekly practice on Sunday. But “break bread” here is no different from “break bread” in Acts 2 — which refers to a meal, as do all the other references to breaking bread in Luke – Acts. This is much more a reference to the love-feast than to the Lord’s Supper, although it is surely both.
Now, at this point, we have a direct and clear statement that the Jerusalem church met daily and broke bread daily. We find that, many years later, the church at Troas met and broke bread on a Sunday. We are told that the disciples met weekly after Jesus’ resurrection, and we know that Pentecost was a Sunday. Sunday was clearly a significant day in some sense, but there’s no indication to this point that communion was celebrated only on Sundays or even that Sunday was the customary day other than in Troas. Rather, we have tantalizing trail of clues and suggestions — but no divine decree.