The Lord’s Supper: John Mark Hicks on the Communion

John Mark Hicks has posted a series of articles on the scriptural roots of communion, and he’s provided some very helpful observations. We begin with his article Breaking Bread in Luke-Acts VI: General Observations.

The church continues the ministry of Jesus. … Jesus sat at table with saint and sinner, insider and outsider. … [They] continued this practice–they broke bread as a community and with outsiders. The church continues to break bread on the ground of what Jesus did, not on the ground of what the church did.

It’s a mistake to view the bread-breaking passage as being all about a Sunday morning ceremony. We best remember Jesus by living as Jesus lived, which includes sharing table fellowship with saints and sinners. This is love.

Hicks’ observation that Luke shows outsiders in Eucharistic settings is at odds with such (not much) later sources as the Didache, which require that unbelievers not be served or even excluded from the room.

The church eats a meal of redemptive hope.  Every “breaking of bread” in Luke-Acts is a redemptive and eschatological in character. … Eating the meal (breaking bread) is a promissory act–God pledges the future to us.

Notice that the bread-breaking passages include many meals that are quite different from the Eucharist. And nearly all these passages unquestionably involve meals. None are unquestionably ceremonial meals such as we conduct.

The church eats in the presence of Jesus. … The church eats a post-resurrection meal with Jesus through the breaking of bread. Eating in the presence of the living Christ is not a funerary act or a sad memorial of his death, but a vibrant declaration of the gospel (good news) that Christ died and rose again for the sake of the world. But more than a declaration–it is, indeed, an experience of the living Christ himself. Thus, joy and celebration encircles the table rather than mourning and sadness. Why would anyone eat a post-resurrection meal with Jesus in sadness?

But when is Jesus with us in our meals? Only at the Lord’s Table? No, he’s with us when “two or three are gathered” in his name. Indeed, he’s with us “always, even to the end of the world.” Therefore, there is a real sense in which every meal taken in the name of Jesus or in service to his mission is Eucharistic.

The church invites “others” to share the meal. When the early church follows Jesus into the world, it is for the sake of the world. … There is no reason to presume that the “breaking of bread” in Acts 2 or Acts 20 only included disciples. … The table is not simply communal but also missional (more on that in the next post).

These are critically important observations — and far removed from our traditional views of communion. After all, even the early (but post-apostolic) church carefully distinguished between who could take communion and could not. The Eucharist was seen as a privilege and mark of the saints — and denied to sinners. But this would be to host a meal and refuse to serve the sinners — a very un-Jesus way to act.

Rather, the presence of Jesus is seen in the congregation’s love — for each other and for visiting unbelievers. The Law of Moses called for visiting Gentiles to share in the Passover. Just so, we miss much of the point when we treat the Lord’s Supper as a means of separating the world from our fellowship. Of course, “fellowship” in this sense is a sharing of our love, symbolized by eating together — not a declaration that the lost are saved. Rather, the idea that we only eat with the saved is precisely the attitude the Jesus came to reverse.

Now, as we ponder these thoughts, we begin to see how very far removed our approach to the Lord’s Supper is from the Biblical teaching.

* Biblical: We eat with sinners. Traditional: We only eat with saints.

* Biblical: The meal is a meal. Traditional: The meal is never a meal.

* Biblical: Jesus is present at all meals taken in his name with others. Tradtional: Jesus is only present in the assembly and only on Sundays.

* Biblical: The meal is sacramental because Jesus has a special presence when we gather in his name, even if not on Sunday. Traditional: The meal is not sacramental but symbolic only.

* Biblical: All meals have the potential to be sacramental — that is, to bring about Jesus’ special presence among us. Traditional: Only the crumb and sip on Sunday have spiritual significance.

* Biblical: Breaking bread with Jesus is a gift celebrated in joy. Traditional: Breaking bread is an ordinance obeyed ritualistically, even mournfully. We certainly shouldn’t sing during the meal!

Do you see the difference?

About Jay F Guin

My name is Jay Guin, and I’m a retired elder. I wrote The Holy Spirit and Revolutionary Grace about 18 years ago. I’ve spoken at the Pepperdine, Lipscomb, ACU, Harding, and Tulsa lectureships and at ElderLink. My wife’s name is Denise, and I have four sons, Chris, Jonathan, Tyler, and Philip. I have two grandchildren. And I practice law.
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49 Responses to The Lord’s Supper: John Mark Hicks on the Communion

  1. Bob Harry says:


    What a great post. I never say this represents but it is his blood and body.

    We do include all and it is a celebration.


  2. I have read HIcks' series before. I like his thoughts. I think that most people disagree with him (something that Hicks admits). The communion service, as most CoC's and others practice it today, with bits of crackers and little sips of juice…It just seems so different from what people in the NT did.

    How did we get here?

    I guess a more important question may be
    How do we get out of here?

  3. JMF says:

    I'm with Dwayne—how did we get here? Specifically, where did crumb-and-sip come from?

  4. Bob Harry says:

    What would happen if the church prepared a simple meal or pot luck and invited everyone in the town to attend?
    Then had a simple devotional with communion.

    Anyone could attend and there would be no restriction as to race, gender, social standing or religious affiliation. Even trashy people would be welcome.

    I'm sure it would frighten most but I would like to try it sometime. I would include the homeless and all the undesirables. Jesus was a master at that sort of thing.

    I think I could find a few that would vocally condemn that action. We do have Pharisees were we live and we could get them to yell disapproval.

    I think it would work and even the folks tha t were not Christian would see that we really care for them.

    I have for years advocated friendship evangelism without restriction. The lost deserve to be a part of us and it is our responsibilit to show our Love for them as Christ did or does for us.

    There are many more, non traditional, out of the box ways to win souls.

    We huddle up in our cloistered buildings and feel safe from the sinners influence on us as opposed to our influence on them by our friendship and expression of Love


  5. Jay Guin says:


    I'll get to solutions — if I can think of any — later.

    I think we got to crumb and sip via Greek/Gnostic influence, as the church moved from its Jewish roots to Platonic thought. Eating a meal was far too material and fleshly for the taste of Greek thinkers — the same people who recommended that married men and women engage in no sex, as sex is too material and fleshly.

    The result was to turn actual food into a spiritual meal.

  6. Jay Guin says:


    I think I've heard of this idea somewhere, maybe —

    (Luke 14:21-23) "The servant came back and reported this to his master. Then the owner of the house became angry and ordered his servant, 'Go out quickly into the streets and alleys of the town and bring in the poor, the crippled, the blind and the lame.'

    22 "'Sir,' the servant said, 'what you ordered has been done, but there is still room.'

    23 "Then the master told his servant, 'Go out to the roads and country lanes and make them come in, so that my house will be full."

  7. Bob Harry says:


    Thats what I had in mind.

    I want all the "called out" in my community, regardless of name, to fill their buildings and homes with the so called rejects of the community.

    I want us to obey the Golden Rule. Everything else will fall in line with the Spirit's help.

    Why can't we be a community like Bethsaida of Galilee where everyone works together for a common cause.

    I am a student of simplicity. Christianity is simple. You have just pinned it by Luke 14: 21-23.
    My goal in my remaining life is to see our community united in Christ to do simple acts of kindness and faith.

    No more infighting just love.


  8. johnny says:

    Only for Jewish Christians, only at Passover time. Just an interpretation of the Passover.

  9. johnny says:

    "I think we got to crumb and sip via Greek/Gnostic influence, as the church moved from its Jewish roots to Platonic thought. Eating a meal was far too material and fleshly for the taste of Greek thinkers"

    Not Platonism but the gospel of John! No mention of the institution of the Lord's Supper. It is replaced in John 6 by eating Jesus flesh and drinking his blood by mere belief. The corruption is with those who seek to impose Jewish ritual meals on Gentile believers, not with those who reject having a meal in the worship at all. The so-called Lord's Supper must be booted, or John's gospel must be booted, because the two are contrary to one another.

  10. johnny says:

    And remember, Paul says "the kingdom of God is not food and drink, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit" in Romans 14:17. Why then does Paul make a big deal about this food and drink ceremony in Corinthians 11? He doesn't. Its an addition by the Catholics. Paul was a pneumatic like John, not a psychic.

  11. johnny says:

    Rom 14:20 "Do not destroy the work of God for the sake of food." Its exactly what we've been doing and will continue to do until we jetison this irrelevant and divisive Jewish meal and stop having any involvement of food in our worship.

  12. Jay Guin says:


    Do you have any manuscript or Patristic evidence for your redaction of the text? I'm not aware of any scholar who agrees with your view. Is there one?

  13. johnny says:

    What "redaction" are you referring to? I'm not using anything but the KJV. Paul does say “the kingdom of God is not food and drink, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit” in Romans 14:17. And John's gospel does lack any institution of the Lord's Supper even though he tells about the last passover. And in John 6 the standard interpretation of this among Protestants is that we eat Jesus' flesh and blood by believing, since Jesus says in John 6:63 "It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life" which is taken to mean that physically eating something is of no importance but rather believing his word, and also he says in John 6:47 "Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me hath everlasting life." That is the same promise attached to eating his flesh and blood, and therefore the standard Protestant interpretation is that eating his flesh and blood and believing in him are one and the same, i.e. you eat his flesh and blood by believing, not by eating a cracker and a swig of grape juice. I'm sure Randall can confirm that this is the standard interpretation. Or you can look at virtually any non CoC commentary on the chapter.

  14. Jay Guin says:

    Sorry. "Redaction" is editing, especially by removing text. You keep saying text in the NT is a Catholic insertion. I want to know whether you have any support for those claims, such as ancient manuscripts or Patristic sources that omit the text you say the Catholics added.

  15. johnny says:

    If you mean the suggestion that 1 Cor 11 could be a Catholic addition, what difference does it make if any scholar does or does not specifically agree with that? You know that tons of scholars divide Paul's epistles between the authentic 4 and pseudo-Pauline or deutero-Pauline corpus. And in some scholars, only Romans, Galatians, and Ephesians are considered authentic. In others 1st Corinthians is. There probably is one out there somewhere that accepts 1 Cor but rejects 1 Cor 11 as interpolation but I don't know. I know that many denominations have no Lord's Supper, or just have some crackers and grape juice in a back room AFTER the service for those who care to go back there (a minority). Certainly scholars attend such churches. Why don't they agree with you on the massive importance of Jewish ritual meals? I think you ought to consider why you find such a ritual important. Paul asks those who seek such rituals in Galatians 4:9 "But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage?"

  16. Jay Guin says:


    Next question:

    When you figure these Catholic interpolations occurred? In the Middle Ages? Second century?

  17. johnny says:

    Second century. As part of the or not long before the final redaction of 180 by Irenaeus.

  18. Mick Porter says:


    After reading John Mark's book and talking to him in person when he was out here in Australia, we decided to move to the kind of format he proposed. We had everyone bring potluck lunch every week, and we all sat around a big table (lots of tables joined together in an L-shape), broke bread, served both red and white wine, and celebrated Jesus. It was open to all.

    I really miss that experience in my current church, but I understand that it's a debatable viewpoint (open versus closed, that is). As JMH argues, if you see a continuity between Jesus' meals with "sinners" in Luke and the Supper in Acts, then you really need to approach it as a missional opportunity.

  19. Randall says:

    Johnny said:
    "I’m sure Randall can confirm that this is the standard interpretation."

    Randall is not involved in this nonsense and has no desire to become involved. He certainly can not confirm what Johnny claims. Please leave Randall of of it.

    Thanks for the consideration,

  20. Bob Harry says:


    Me too. Debate never won a soul. It only made the hardened harder.
    As an international Petroleum Engineer I found simple solutions to complex problems. The Gospel is simple, so simple than any uneducated person can understand it. That puts us all on common ground.
    People are much the same if you keep it simple and direct.



  21. Randall says:

    Hi Bob,
    Regarding debate and going beyond the keep it simple (KIS) position regarding theology I think it may be different for different people.

    Responsible debate can be enlightening, edifying and encouraging, Irresponsible debate can be "like a kerosene lantern in that it generates more heat than light." I have no interest in debating over what I may consider to be an idiosyncratic position for which there is little or no support. It can be like wrestling with a pig – you both get dirty, but the pig doesn't care. Even when the issue is worthy of a lot of discussion I disappoint myself by the tone of some of my comments.

    Some people do not see value in struggling to understand theology on a deeper level and are turned off by the thought of having to dig that deep and still not knowing or understanding all the answers. For others the deeper they dig the more they are in awe of God; and they are sometimes disappointed that some others leave things at what they consider too shallow a level. Someone has said that the scriptures are "shallow enough for a child to wade in and deep enough for an elephant to drown in."

    So I think a good discussion where people talk to each other and grapple with trying to understand the other side can be worthwhile, but it may not be for everyone.

  22. Jerry Starling says:

    It's amazing to me how a good, thought-provoking blog can be turned into such a travesty by dogmatic assertions with no evidence in the comments.


  23. Bob Harry says:


    What are you trying to say? That we are the epitome of dogmatic discussions?


  24. Jay Guin says:


    Thanks for the comment. That's the first time I've heard of someone actually trying the idea. It's encouraging to hear that it worked so well.

    My son attends a house church that takes communion as part of a common meal. I find that much more meaningful than what we typically do. And yet there are obvious practical problems for a larger church.

  25. johnny says:

    I don't see how pointing out the foolishness of racheting up the fight, nay the war, on the Lord's Supper is dogmatic. Quite the contrary, your liberal dogmatic beliefs that the Lord's Supper should be made into some crazy show banquet and the conservative dogmatic beliefs that it should be a stale ritual are dogmatic. My PROGRESSIVE belief that we should just cast it aside and spare ourselves the fighting since it was just for the Jews anyway, just a reinterpretation of Passover for as long as Christian Jews would continue Passoever, with this actual progress will be made. Your plan just makes an already body strewn battlefield all the more bloody.

  26. johnny says:

    That was to Jerry.

  27. Pastor Mike says:

    Jay and Mick, my wife and recently visited a Reformed Church plant that was trying this same sort of model. It was in the church budget to proved a simple meal at which there was a "sacramental" blessing of the meal, and a discussion of the morning's sermon.

    I too wonder how it would work in a larger church, but in the smaller church, I found it to be a great way for the morning to unfold.

  28. Raymond Gonzelez says:

    Why do we have to concentrate on inviting unbelievers to our “Table” as an assembly of the saints? Our worship services are public… are they not? We invite people to our supper when we invite them to our services.. right? They may be disappointed that more food is not served, but the invitation is open for all.
    But why just our worship service. Do we not have houses to eat in? (I Cor.11:22) Most don’t mind having strangers in our worship service, but in our home? Yes, we say “its a great idea to have a nice big meal along with the bread and the wine, as long as it is over there at the church building or place of meeting. But, are we willing to go out into the streets and invite the “lowly” and “hungre” into our homes?

  29. Attaboy, Raymond. Right in the ten-ring. Show me two unbelievers: one who has been to ten church services, and one who has eaten ten meals with a believing family in their home, and let’s see which unbeliever is more changed by his experience. One of the most graphic errors in the church today is the ubiquitous sub-contracting by Christians of our own callings to our local congregation. I write a check so “my church” can help the poor, so “my church” can reach the lost, so “my church” can be a light in the community. I have this mental image of believers standing at the judgment where their works are judged, holding an accordion-file full of check-stubs and receipts…

  30. Alabama John says:


    We must be aware that this coming for food to fill the stomach rather than for bread and wine recognizing the body and blood of Christ was spoken against in 1 Corinthians 11:27.

    That is why most churches of Christ do not have regular meals in their buildings, so as to not confuse the two.

    Having folks over for regular meals at our home instead of the Lords Supper is sure welcomed..

  31. AJ, it was not the meal and the eating that Paul corrected in I Corinthians. Not at all. It was the lack of concern shown by one member for another in the gathering, as evidenced by how the meal went down. That lack of care and concern for one another is never the result of eating, and it is never cured by limiting this meal to a “chip and a sip”. Many of us have experienced the same absence of concern in gatherings of believers where not a crumb was consumed. Paul was not correcting the structure of the meal, but the cold hearts of the participants.

    The reason for some CoC’s avoiding congregational meals “in the building” is that they did read the passage and then missed Paul’s point entirely. The analogy here is like telling my son, “You’re driving like a maniac and wearing out your tires!”, which sends him on a search for better tires.

  32. Alabama John says:


    Either or both of our interpretations, coming only to fill belly, or not having concern for one another, can cause us to participate “Unworthily” and that aint good.

    We should be aware of each and many others and guard against them.

    The Lords Supper is not actually the bread and wine, it is what is in the mind thinking of Christ body and blood after all. “If the meaning is gone, it is wrong”, for any reason it does become as you say, simply a “chip and a sip”.

  33. Jaqi says:

    Jud 1:3    Beloved, although I was very eager to write to you about our common salvation, I found it necessary to write appealing to you to contend for the faith that was once for all delivered to the saints.

  34. Kaqi says:

    1Co 11:23   I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread,
    1Co 11:24    and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, “This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”

  35. Jaqi says:

    According to some of the reasoning demonstrated here re having a 7 course meal and inviting those who have not been taught, why did Jesus invite only the 12 when there were thousands that would have joyfully joined Him. And why did Jesus choose bread to represent His sacrifice and not the Passover lamb would follow in line with what has been presented in this blog? Havi g problems with formatting

  36. Jaqi says:

    And when the hour came, He reclined at table, and the apostles with Him.
    For I tell you I will not eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”    And He took a cup, and when He had given thanks He said, “Take this, and divide it among yourselves.
    For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” And He took bread, and when He had given thanks, He broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of Me.” Luke 22:14ff What did Jesus want us to do?

  37. Jaqi says:

    1Co 11:34    if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home—so that when you come together it will not be for judgment. About the other things I will give directions when I come.

  38. Larry Cheek says:

    This would assume that the individual had provisions at home to fulfill the need. This is representative of a mindset involved in the purpose of the event being discussed. Don’t come to this event to fill your belly.

  39. Jaqi says:

    The command is holy: “Speak to the people of Israel and say to them, These are the appointed feasts of the LORD that you shall proclaim as holy convocations; they are my appointed feasts.”These are the appointed feasts of the LORD, the holy convocations, which you shall proclaim at the time appointed for them. In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight, is the LORD’s Passover.Lev 23:2,4,5

  40. Jaqi says:

    The command to Israel was holy, not up for interpretation or discussion

  41. Jaqi says:

    Are any of God’s commands not holy? Should we feel free to tweak them to suit our cravings?

  42. Jaqi says:

    Does the Lord change?    “Shall a faultfinder contend with the Almighty? He who argues with God, let him answer it.” Job 40:2

  43. Jaqi says:

    To the church of God that is in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints together with all those who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both their Lord and ours:   I appeal to you, brothers, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you agree, and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be united in the same mind and the same judgment. 1 Cor 1:2,10

  44. Jaqi says:

    And He took a cup, and when He had given thanks He said, “Take this, and divide it among yourselves. Luke 22:17 ?Did each apostle end up with a full cup or a smaller portion? Did it matter to Jesus what amount was in each cup? What was of greatest importance? Discernment of Jesus’ command to remember His sacrifice by observing exactly what He said-with a thanksgiving/blessing and doing so with exactly what He used.

  45. Jaqi says:

    “This would assume that the individual had provisions at home to fulfill the need.” Not exactly following your train of thought. Are you asking Paul to explain, as these are not my words? Was Paul addressing people not having enough to eat in this passage or the lack of holiness and respect for observing the Lord’s memorial?

  46. It’s not just the Gentiles who think they will be heard for their much speaking. Jaqi, you have used up the entire board’s quota for vaguely-directed rhetorical questions. Would you mind making your point?

  47. R.J. says:


    The condemnation was not because they were filling their tummies per say. But because of bigotry and bitter quarrels. If they were soo inconsiderate to eat everything before anyone else got there, then they might as well stay home.

  48. Dwight says:

    Unfortuntely the above on the communion lacks scripture, which indicates that it was the saints that had communion of the Lord’s Supper. In the Gospels Jesus eats with His disciples, in Acts the newly converted Christians broke bread and in I Cor.10-11 the Christian Corithians are told how they have abused the Lord’s Supper among them. I would think the principle of the family meal would be what we should see in the Lord’s Supper and it would be about family. The Passover was of the Israelites who celebrated thier deliverance from Egypt and the Lord’s Supper is based on that thought in that we as Christians were liberated from sin and death. I would say per scripture that the Lord’s Supper was all about the saints remembering Christ and his deliverance and this concept would be lost on the unsaved.
    The pinching came from the concept of trying to keep the bread whole as it was passed from person to person and the sippy cups from when cups were made into little individual cups…both I believe from around 1800s.

  49. Dwight says:

    One other thought. The Lord’s Supper is not about the “elements” of the Supper, but atout the element of the supper…Christ. We are partaking of Christ. The bread and fruit of the vine are but representatives of Christ and our unity in Christ. We are partakingof the body of Christ as we being Christians are the body of Christ as well. The Lord’s Supper is a remembrance of Christ to those who are a part of Christ.

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